From my Research and Enquiry module I have chosen to publish the bibliography section below, detailing important and canonical texts within the field of typography.

1.

Bayer, H., 1967. On Typography.

In: Bayer, H., 1967. Herbert Bayer: Painter Designer Architect.

New York: Reinhold. pp.75-77.

Anon, n.d Front Cover. [electronic print] Available at: <http://www.modernism101.com/images/bayer_reinhold.jpg&gt; [Accessed 26th December 2011].

Herbert Bayer, a principle instructor within the Bauhaus School, was responsible for the reduction of typography to the bare essentials. Within On Typography, Bayer begins by assessing the disgruntled designers awaiting the typographic revolution. This is a useful text for dispelling old beliefs and explaining the requirements for a revolution, coupled with Bayer’s idea’s for prior advancement. Themes remain similar to Beatrice Warde (1930), with regards to the fundamental purpose of typography, as a ‘service art’; the successful communication of the written word. Disappointingly some reproductions of the essay are printed in serif type and occasionally with the re-introduction of the uppercase, dis-regarding Bayer’s fundamental typographic concepts outlined within the text.

2.

Bringhurst, R., 1997. The Elements of Typographic Style. 3rd Edition.

Swtizerland: R. Weber AG.

Anon, n.d. The Elements of Typographic Style. [electronic print] Available at: <http://waltongraphic.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/ElementsOfTypo.jpg&gt; [Accessed 26th December 2011].

Bringhurst, a professor in typography, poetry and an acclaimed author, covers an extraordinary range of topics within The Elements of Typographic Style. In his belief, the history of typography and the visual representation are intrinsically linked, therefore typographic understanding relates to both elements. Focussing solely on the medium of the book, he provides a remarkably thorough account, with detailed descriptions, examples and images relating to each point raised. Unlike similar books cited, Bringhurst often brings humour to the text, and by breaking the text into small sections relieves pressure on the reader. Finally the book design itself echoes Bringhurst’s appreciation for form and layout.

3.

Gill, E., 1988. An Essay on Typography. New Edition.

London: Lund Humphries Limited.

Anon, n.d. An Essay on Typography. [electronic print] Available at: <http://covers.openlibrary.org/w/id/674645-L.jpg&gt; [Accessed 26th December 2011].

Eric Gill, widely known for the successful typefaces Gill Sans and Perpetua, is the author of the often understated, An Essay on Typography. Written in the typeface Joanna, this manifesto remains indispensable to those interested in letter form and an excellent contrast to ‘new typography’ texts of the period, for example Jan Tschischold’s The New Typography. Gill considers both typography and the entire culture of design, both from an industrial and humanitarian approach. Further fascinating is the setting; Gill utilised the two sets of Joanna capitals for emphasis, paragraph markings ‘¶’ to express changes of thought and paragraph, and will often change font size to prevent ragged lines.

4.

Jacquillat, A. and Vollauschek, T., 2011. The 3D Type Book.

London: Lawrence King Publishers.

Anon, n.d. The 3D Type Book. [electronic print] Available at: <http://3d-type.com/images/The-3D-Type-Book_Cover1_1200.jpg&gt; [Accessed 26th December 2011].

Tomi Vollauschek and Agathe Jacquillat form FL@33, a London-based design practice, recently released this text relating solely to 3D Type. While the majority of books cited in this bibliography refer to the printed word, 3D type focuses on an entirely different narrative. It is a showcase of over 300 projects from more than 160 various artists. 3D type covers a range of typography projects, from seminal historical images such as the 1940 Vogue cover, to modern day experiments. The work is fantastically inventive, stunning and often amusing. It invites the reader to identify opportunities for expressing the written word in every situation.

5.

Lupton, E., 2010. Thinking with Type: A Critical Guide for Designers,

Writers, Editors, and Students. 2nd Edition.

New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

Anon, n.d. Thinking With Type. [electronic print] Available at: <http://www.thefunctionality.com/blog/2011/3/7/book-review-thinking-with-type-by-ellen-lupton.html&gt; [Accessed 26th December 2011].

Ellen Lupton remains an admiral figure within modern typography. Throughout her publications she has opened up the seemingly elite typographic world. Initially intended to provide material for her students, Thinking with Type is now readily recommended to all. Lupton correctly dispels any preconceptions about the book stating “This is not a book about fonts. It is a book about how to use them.” Through a combination of images and text Lupton succinctly explains an extensive range of typographic topics accompanied by brief historical context. Thinking with Type is necessary for designers and non-designers alike as an introduction to the mechanics of typography.

6.

McCoy, K. and Frej, D., 1988. Typography as Discourse. ID Magazine,

March – April, 35 (5), pp.34-37.

No Available Image

Katherine McCoy, a senior lecturer at the Institute of Design in Chicago, collaborated with David Frej to produce this remarkable article. Typography as Discourse expertly provides a summary of the developments of the last 80 years, and more importantly perfectly highlights the frustration and lack of inspiration faced by designers over the last two decades. She reminds us that all unique expressions – upon becoming a fundamental new style – evolve into institutions to be avoided, forming a cycle. Finally McCoy emphasises the importance of being understated and leaves areas of interpretation for the budding designer to allocate himself a role in the future design revolution, inspiring hope.

7.

Müller-Brockmann, J., 2009. Grid Systems: in Graphic Design.

Bilingual Edition. Sulgen: Verlag Niggli AG.

Anon, n.d. Grid Systems: in Graphic Design. [electronic print] Available at: <http://s3.media.squarespace.com/production/530685/6321971/updates/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/grid-systems-300×287.jpg&gt; [Accessed 26th December 2011].

Josef Müller-Brockmann remains a fundamental influence as a pioneer of Swiss International Style. While not focussed solely toward typography, Grid Systems provides a wonderful overview of the movement, allowing an informative approach to the evolution of Swiss Typographic Style. Beginning with an introduction to the grid system before providing a manual of typography adhering to the strict rules including font descriptions, Grid Systems is remarkably thorough. The text is particularly interesting when read in conjunction with the canonical texts of other movements, for example Tschichold’s The New Typography, Bringhurst’s The Elements of Typographic Style and Gill’s An Essay on Typography providing alternative viewpoints.

8.

Potter, N., 2002. What is a designer. 4th Edition.

London: Hypen Press.

Anon, n.d. What is a designer. [electronic print] Available at: <http://www.hyphenpress.co.uk/images/covers/14/medium/016_Wiad.jpg?1168433602&gt; [Accessed 26th December 2011].

Norman Potter, initially a cabinet maker by trade, had the final edition of What Is A Designer published posthumously. Opposing the majority of other works cited, Potter’s collection of essays and analysis doesn’t offer pictorial representation of the information conveyed, instead it allows the reader the opportunity to formulate images themselves, following the book’s premise, to make designers think. The book provides a critical analysis of the role of ‘the designer’, his historic context and his responsibilities. Today areas of this book are sadly outdated and irrelevant, though its publication would have proved greatly useful, and it remains interesting to appreciate how Potter believed the world would result – following modernism – in fascism.

9.

Ruder, E., 2007. Typographie: A Manual of Design. 7th Ed.

Sulgen: Verlag Niggli AG.

Anon, n.d. Typographie: A Manual of Design. [electronic print] Available at: <http://farm6.static.flickr.com/5296/5546761455_c5a6e6c252.jpg&gt; [Accessed 26th December 2011].

Emil Ruder, a professor and professional within typographic studies, has compiled over 25 years experience in this beautiful book. Each element of typography is covered in extensive detail, accompanied by interesting and relevant comments. Despite techniques having changed since the 1967 publication, the appeal of visual aspects remains the same. Each section ties in historical context, modern approach and his own opinions, equipping the reader with both the confidence and the knowledge to approach a task; knowing both the mechanical limitations and having heightened his aspirations. Ruder also empathises with the struggle of the typographer in the expansive commercial society surprisingly relevant still today.

10.

Spiekermann, E. and Ginger, E, M., 2002.

Stop Stealing Sheep & Find Out How Type Works. 2nd Edition.

Berkeley: Adobe Press.

Anon, n.d. Stop Stealing Sheep & Find Out How Type Works. [electronic print] Available at: <http://images.pearsoned-ema.com/jpeg/large/9780201703399.jpg&gt; [Accessed 26th December 2011].

Erik Spiekermann, a typographer, designer and lecturer at University of the Arts in Bremen, collaborated with E.M. Ginger in order to produce this notable text. In contrast to many of the other works included in this bibliography, Spiekermann provides a down-to-earth approach to typography and layout design. Furthermore in the second edition he includes information on screen design for internet as well as print. It provides an alternative perspective, interspersed with Spiekermann’s humour creating a delightfully informative read primarily for the novice typographer.

11.

Triggs, T., 2003. The Typographic Experiment:

Radical Innovation in Contemporary Type Design.

London: Thames and Hudson.

Anon, n.d. The Typographic Experiment: Radical Innovation in Contemporary Type Design. [electronic print] Available at: <http://resource.tcdc.or.th/bookcover/11468/11468-fc-a.jpg&gt; [Accessed 26th December 2011].

Teal Triggs is an avid author, lecturer and educator as well as remaining an active figure within the self-publishing zine culture. The Typographic Experiment arrived at an era, similar to McCoy’s Typography as Discourse, when the designer was struggling to find new direction, and only through wide experimentation could a breakthrough be achieved. The book acts as a collection of some of the most fundamental and often unappreciated innovative typographic work of 38 designers in the last several decades. Furthermore the backbones are exposed, allowing students and professionals the opportunity to follow thought process, offering reassurance that great design can often stem from ‘poor’ work.

12.

Tschichold, J., 2006. The New Typography: A Handbook for Modern Designers. Translated from German by Ruari McLean.

London: University of California Press.

Anon, n.d. The New Typography. [electronic print] Available at: <http://img2.imagesbn.com/images/101440000/101448456.jpg&gt; [Accessed 26th December 2011].

Jan Tschichold, highly influenced by De Stijl and Constructivism, wrote his first book, The New Typography in 1928, awakening the world to the power and importance of typography as a matter of a design discipline. Although interesting, the historic element remains outshone, instead Tschichold’s attempts at standardisation, dominating the second half of the book are fascinating. Standardisation for letterheads, postcards, business cards are all presented and thoroughly justified, enforcing the values of the new typography. Tschichold explains in remarkable detail, allowing for simple understanding and adoption of his conveyed typographic standards.

13.

Warde, B., 1930. The Crystal Goblet, or Why Printing Should Be Invisible.

In: Armstrong, S., ed. 2009. Graphic Design Theory: Readings From The Field. China: Princeton Architectural Press, pp.39-43.

Anon, n.d. Graphic Design Theory. [electronic print] Available at: <http://www.imarksweb.net/img/1/1568987722.jpg&gt; [Accessed 26th December 2011].

Beatrice Warde, cited as the “First Lady of Typography” was an avid speaker and author on the subject. The Crystal Goblet, initially through a wine glass metaphor, advocates the principle purpose of typography as “thought transference”. Within the short text, Warde encourages the humble use of typography as fundamentally preventing distraction from the information proffered. Furthermore, her use of metaphors and simple explanations allows the reader to easily grasp the suggested concepts. Warde offers an introduction to the principles behind the new typography in an accessible and effective manner.

14.

Weingart, W., 2000. My Way to Typography.

Baden: Lars Müller Publishers.

Anon, n.d. My Way to Typography. [electronic print] Available at: <http://farm1.staticflickr.com/128/406245562_4b74b97b42.jpg&gt; [Accessed 26th December 2011].

Weingart, a former student of Armin Horman and Emil Ruder spurred the movement of New Wave through his radical, rule-breaking approach to typography. Throughout the text, the reader is led through Weingart’s experience of typography, detailing flaws with previous systems and following his process and experimentation to the results. Weingart takes the Swiss Typographic Style standard and drags it to an unprecedented future. This extensive overview of Weingart’s time at Künstgewerbeschule in Basel remains inspirational and a catalyst for remarkable unique design.

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